Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Internet1 Essay Example For Students

Internet1 Essay Pillar me up, Scottie. This well known line from Star Trek was an exhibition of the trend setting innovation of things to come. In spite of the fact that it was an anecdotal story, Star Trek turned into the general vision of things to come. As consistently reality will in general copy fiction. Despite the fact that our general public has not exactly come about to living in space, we have made life simpler with innovation. Monetary endurance has gotten increasingly needy upon data and interchanges delivering new innovation of which was rarely thought conceivable. Only a unimportant thirty years prior a PC consumed an entire room thought about todays palm estimated PCs, which are quicker and perform more capacities. Phones, presently light and conservative, were cumbersome only ten years back. The most mind blowing creation, the Internet, is carrying unending measure of data to your work area. In the realm of the of the Internet there exist a world oblivious to skin shading and other p hysical appearances. The Internet while still youthful in age has developed quickly, spreading to nations worldwide and interfacing 50 million clients. With its fame, it is officeholder upon our general public to perceive how the Internet functions and to know about its preferences just as detriments. While apparently cutting edge the Internet idea is fairly basic. PCs address each other and send data. This is cultivated by sending and getting electronic drive, and afterward unraveling them into a message. So as to speak with each other they are connected up in a system. They are then ready to get to data from a great many different PCs. The system demonstrations like one huge PC putting away data in different spots, instead of in one physical structure. Clients tap into the Internet to get to or give data. Web innovation permits one to ride the World Wide Web or send email. The vision of the Internet that would reform the PC and correspondences had a place with JCR Licklider of MIT (Leiner n. page). In August of 1962 he imagined an all inclusive interconnected arrangement of PCs which would permit everybody to rapidly get to information and projects (Leiner n. page). A legislature supported undertaking at Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) began in October (Leiner n. page). The race for revelation of such innovation seethed between the Soviet Union and The United States of America. The two nations needed control of the potentially integral asset. At that point in 1968, The National Physical Laboratory in Great Britain set up the primary test organize, which provoked the Pentagons ARPA to finance a bigger undertaking in the USA. (Authentic n. page)However the race was not restricted to simply countries yet in addition organizations. In 1965, working with Thomas Merrill, Lawrence G. Roberts made the main wide-region PC at any point manufactured. These trials demonstrated that PCs could cooperate running projects and recovering information as essential on remote machines. Roberts set up his arrangement for ARPANET, distributed in 1966. Around then he learned of Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury of NPL and Paul Baron and others at RAND. Examination at MIT (1961-1967), RAND (1962-1965) and NPL (1964-1967) while equal had no information on each o ther. In August of 1968 a RFQ, a refined model of ARPANET was discharged for the advancement of one of the key parts, the parcel switches Interface Message Processors (IMP). Jolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) introduced the principal IMP at UCLA and the main host PC was associated. Before the finish of 1969 four host PCs were associated together into the underlying ARPANET and the Internet was off the ground. In 1977, electronic mail was presented. (Leiner n. page)As the Internet immediately developed, changes were vital. The Internets decentralized structure made it simple to grow however its NCP didn't be able to address arranges further down stream than the goal IMP. Bounce Kahn chose to build up another rendition of the convention which inevitably got known as the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Contrasted with the NCP which went about as a gadget driver, the new convention was progressively similar to a correspondence convention. So as to make it simpler to utilize, Host were then doled out names, supplanting numbers. A gathering of researcher at that point set out to show that a smaller and basic usage of TCP was conceivable. They succeeded, permitting it to run on personal computers. (Leiner n. page). Unique employments of the Internet included government correspondences and a discussion for researcher to share thoughts and help each other in research. During the 1980s the Internet developed past its principally research roots to incorporate an expansive client network and expanded business action. In present day it has become a device for directing exploration and discovering data, just as correspondences with others. Electronic mail, incredibly mainstream, with visit rooms and conversation bunches makes the Internet a famous spot for meeting new individuals. (Leiner n. page). Macbeth: Describe Macbeth As A Tragic Hero EssayHowever, the Internet being so free and uncensored presents numerous issues. Affirmation of youngsters utilizing the Internet has filled a battle for guideline. Guardians can not generally screen their youngsters, in this manner the Internet should be a sheltered spot for the kids. Youngsters approach the Internet in schools, libraries, and pretty much all over the place. In schools it is almost unthinkable for an educator to observe all the kids, and in libraries it isn't the administrators employment to screen them. PCs and the Internet are for everybody, including kids, in this manner it has become a huge issue. Access to erotic entertainment has been probably the best worry among guardians. Shockingly, erotic entertainment is anything but difficult to access and kids will. Youngsters are normally inquisitive and love to investigate. Minors are likewise focused by sponsors. Much the same as on TV sponsors attempt to draw youngsters in with pictures and sites which incorporate games and visit rooms. Anyway the greatest risk isn't what they find on the Internet yet who they find. The data they get to isn't as risky as the individuals they meet. There have been numerous instances of molesters and ruffians scanning for ask on-line. Epithets are utilized to secure the character of the youngsters however can likewise be utilized to veil grown-ups. They go into childrens visit rooms and cajole the youngsters to confide in them. In any case, denying the youngsters access to the Internet isn't the arrangement, maybe programming is. Anyway programming constraining childrens access to website pages hav e not been effective. For some situation the product doesn't sift through every single unseemly page yet sift through non-shocking pages. (Should kids be kept disconnected? and criminals are not by any means the only individuals with access to the Internet we should fear. Those devilish masterminds likewise represent a danger. Known as programmers or saltines, they scan for powerless PC frameworks at that point strike. Organizations can lose exchange insider facts, and the harms can be a calamity. In 1996 Dan Framer, a security advisor, tried 2,000 PCs systems, and of those 65% had security openings huge enough for an interloper to enter (Freedman 280). Government PCs are only a helpless as youngsters have as of late illustrated. Youngsters working out of their home with direction from a multi year old broke into government grouped data. Despite the fact that they were gotten, it purchased alert to the potential perils of data spills. The United States foes could ap proach military codes and top mystery records. In spite of the fact that the normal individual isn't focused by programmers they are at risk for misrepresentation and cheats. Taken charge card numbers have been supposed to be a significant issue. Its odds happening are not as extraordinary as the media makes it to be, however in any case it is an issue. The crooks effectively pull off such a wrongdoing. They get the quantity of a Visa and charge silly bills, yet when the bill comes they have proceeded onward to the following casualty. Numerous plans come as garbage mail. They offer arrangements that sound unrealistic and chances are they counterfeit. They just request a little whole of cash in advance, next they money the check and proceed onward. ( Anarchy Online 98)Secure passwords can keep programmers from getting to PCs. Passwords should comprise of numbers, letters and images: a model P11++69. Regardless of how secure and cutting edge the PC security framework, everything necessary is a basic , dumb secret phrase like hi to render the entire framework useless. (Freedman 279)Though the Internet has its favorable circumstances it additionally has disservices, thusly clients ought to instruct oneself on the progressive apparatus. With more than 50 million clients the Internet is quickly developing and is to the 90s what the PC was to the 70s. New utilizations are jumping up regular, making it difficult to foresee the eventual fate of the Internet. One thing certain is that the Internet has reformed the PC and correspondences. The Internet is an overall telecom capacity, an instrument for coordinated effort and communication between people regardless of geographic area. (Leiner

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Aging and Women’s Sexuality

Maturing and Women’s Sexuality Liqi Liu The World Health Organization views sexual wellbeing as a condition of physical, mental, passionate and social prosperity identified with sexuality (Woloski-Wruble et al., 2010). It isn't constrained to the nonappearance of sickness, illness brokenness or the simple nearness of sex action. These elements are an impression of an effective maturing model that joins physical prosperity reflected by a low weakness to ailment. It likewise incorporates social and enthusiastic prosperity related with dynamic commitment with life and mental prosperity showed by a high limit with respect to physical and psychological capacity. Sexuality is a fundamental segment of wellbeing at all formative ages and a significant part of life fulfillment (Kalra, Subramanyam, Pinto, 2011). The elements that impact the sexuality of ladies in their center and mature age are socio-social, ladylike, clinical, political, monetary components (Birkhauser, 2009) and worldwide elements. Other affecting elements incorporate social portrayals of sexuality, physiological conditions, and relationship factors (Ringa, Diter, Laborde, Bajos, 2013). Social practices assume a basic job in deciding sexuality (Shea, 2011). In China, some clinical teachers see sexual exercises in center and mature age an untouchable. Other wellbeing experts see womens primitive perspectives as the primary obstruction to sexual freedom. The change in womens economic wellbeing because of advanced education, support in the work power and expanded utilization of contraception has increased sexual movement. These exercises inside the social condition to a great extent influence the womens reactions to their maturing procedure. Other contributing variables incorporate improvement of expectations for everyday comforts and future (Ringa, Diter, Laborde, Bajos, 2013). Wellbeing is another key calculate influencing sexuality center and matured ladies (Birkhauser, 2009). Cardiovascular illness in postmenopausal ladies influences their physical, social and general prosperity. This prompts decay of personal satisfaction and includes the pessimistic impacts of menopause (Birkhauser, 2009). Access to wellbeing is dictated by the money related capacity of the ladies and empowering political structure. In opposition to prevalent thinking, the menopausal status isn't a hazard factor in sexual brokenness. In certain cases, it prompted low sexual want. A few investigations have indicated that ladies past the age of 50 are still explicitly dynamic (Ringa, Diter, Laborde, Bajos, 2013). This paper intends to assess the different elements that influence sexuality in more established ladies. Foundation The universes maturing populace is expanding, as the present future is expanding. The future of ladies in Israel assessed at 82 years (Woloski-Wruble et al., 2010). About 33% of womens life is lived after discontinuance of feminine cycle. China comprises the world’s biggest moderately aged and older populace. Around one-fifth of the universes older populace and a fourth of the moderately aged populace live in China. In 2010, 381.6 million individuals were between the ages of 40 and 59 while a gauge of 170.9 individuals was over 60 years old (Shea, 2011). Segment considers venture a fast increment in these extents throughout the following a very long while. By 2050, it is normal that 35.4% of the populace in China will be over 60 years old (Shea, 2011). All things considered, understanding the requirements, wants and abilities of this gathering is of vital significance. Starting at now, not many examinations have concentrated on sexuality in the older and the current writing contains opposing data. For example, a few investigations demonstrate that hormonal determinants have no impact on the sexual drive while others show a connection between's hormonal changes and sexual action. Subsequently, further investigations would significantly help in finding out declarations that sexual life is a significant determinant of fulfillment throughout everyday life (Shea, 2011). Social Factors Certain social standards are the reason for pessimistic mentalities towards sexuality in more seasoned individuals. In some Western societies, men are viewed as prepared for sexual movement at a more youthful age than ladies (Woloski-Wruble et al., 2010). They additionally guarantee that ladies become agamic with age. Notwithstanding, ladies have in the ongoing time tested this view and viewed sex as critical (Woloski-Wruble et al., 2010). Research has concentrated on the sexual brokenness that is probably going to happen after menopausal progress instead of the ordinary range of typical exercises because of the progressions emerging from hormonal changes. In any case, it is worth to take note of that menopause doesn't really result in sexopause. The conviction that sexual action diminished with age was held since sexuality was restricted to intercourse. As of late, sexuality has been widened to mean any sexual stimulating action (Woloski-Wruble et al., 2010). Utilizing this more extensive definition, considers have demonstrated that ladies remain explicitly dynamic even in mature age. A close connection is one factor impacting sexuality in more seasoned ladies. Having the option to address their desires would upgrade life fulfillment. The Chinese culture is set apart by three conventions; Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism (Shea, 2011). The Confucian convention pushed for sex for a wedded couple and just with the end goal of multiplication. Else, it viewed other sexual exercises as unrespectful and undignified. Buddhist instructed that so as to appreciate impeccable harmony, one needed to surrender common joys and wants. In that capacity, sexual movement past the motivation behind proliferation was seen as diverting one from their improvement. Daoist then again see sex as destructive and reckless as it causes men to lose their semen (Shea, 2011). An investigation led in China demonstrated that 33% of the examined populace was of the sentiment that sex further down the road was unfortunate or anomalous. It additionally indicated a connection between's the womens demeanor and the sexual action. The ladies who saw sex as ordinary were bound to take part in sexual exercises. Further, the ladies with inspirational mentalities drove sound associations with their companions. The examination additionally proposed that the family unit organization, for example, the quantity of relatives and number of ages added to the sexual action sometime down the road (Shea, 2011). Social Factors Ladies from various areas see menopause differently(Birkhauser, 2009). In the Muslim culture, period is viewed as debasement. Henceforth, menopausal ladies increase a higher economic wellbeing. It is in this way viewed as a glad occasion that requires a festival. Sometimes, this isn't the situation, and hormonal treatment is considered so as to improve understanding results. Hormonal treatment gives suggestive help and reestablishes sexual action (Birkhauser, 2009). Hormonal treatment ought to likewise be suggested for ladies with cardiovascular occasions except if there are related dangers. A few societies don't permit draining and thus elective medication is looked to ease the indications while permitting just the ideal amenorrhea.The impact of the normal items has not been adequately examined (Birkhauser, 2009). Clinical Factors The condition of wellbeing impacts the degree of sexual movement (Birkhauser, 2009). Ladies who are of a progressed in age and are in poor condition of wellbeing are more averse to participate in sexual exercises. During the administration of substantial maladies, clinicians regularly disregard the suggestions for sexual life and henceforth go undiscovered (Maciel Lagana, 2014). These issues may make the patient be socially pulled back and bring about gloom. Cardiovascular infections are one significant reason for decreased movement. Ladies who experienced myocardial localized necrosis don't lead an explicitly dynamic life (Kalra, Subramanyam, Pinto, 2011). Other than heart issues, old ladies may experience the ill effects of physical incapacities that influence the engine work (DeLamater Moorman, 2007). This gathering of patients experience torment and distress in sexual exercises and are probably going to pull back. Likewise, patients may endure low charisma and reluctance to participate in foreplay (Woloski-Wruble et al., 2010). Female Factors Hormonal changes that happen during the beginning of menopause bring about vagina dryness and, thus, influence sexual fulfillment (Lindau, Schumm, Laumann, 2008). In any case, a few investigations around there found no relationship between's menopausal state and sexual movement (Ringa, Diter, Laborde, Bajos, 2013). Perimenopausal ladies have expanded degrees of masturbation proposing that hormonal changes don't frustrate penetrative intercourse. In any case, a few examinations have detailed that menopausal changes negatively affect the sexual life. These irregularities could be because of various attributes of tests utilized in the distinctive studies(Ringa, Diter, Laborde, Bajos, 2013). Political Factors More seasoned ladies have barely any wellsprings of assets to pay for protection premiums and taxes(WHO, 2007). Deficient accounts may bring about postponements to look for clinical consideration following ailment. The creating ailment bargains the condition of wellbeing and influences sexual exercises. Subsequently ladies living districts in which the wellbeing arrangements elevate openness to wellbeing administrations paying little mind to the capacity to pay appreciate relative wellbeing and consequently solid sexual wellbeing. It is the obligation of every nation to build up the best blend of approaches in human services, pay and social administrations so as to shield the prosperity and strength of more seasoned ladies (WHO, 2007). Financial Factors Destitution is a key player in trading off the soundness of maturing ladies. Around the world, ladies have lower support in the work power and are frequently come up short on when contrasted with men of equivalent capabilities. More established ladies get work in low-paying and low maintenance employments. Inadequate subsidizes limit the capacity of elderly people ladies to get to the most fundamental needs, for example, medicinal services, sanctuary and food. It is assessed that 70% of the ladies on the planet live beneath the neediness line of le

Friday, August 21, 2020


Boone Boone. 1 City (1990 pop. 25,186), seat of Boone co., central Iowa, on the Des Moines River; inc. 1865. It is a railroad and industrial center with plants making machinery, steel fabrications, and plastic signs. It was laid out (1865) by the railroad, which built a long, high double-track bridge there. In 1887 it annexed the nearby rival town of Boonesboro (founded 1851). 2 City (1990 pop. 12,915), seat of Watauga co., NW N.C., near the Blue Ridge Parkway. A tobacco market and cattle center located in a winter and summer mountain resort region, Boone also has varied manufacturing industries. The city is the seat of Appalachian State Univ. and the Appalachian Cultural Museum. Cone Memorial Park, the former estate of industrialist Moses Cone; and the Appalachian Heritage Museum are to the south. The area was settled in the 18th cent. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. Political Geography

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Sir Robert Peel and American Policing - 962 Words

Sir Robert Peel and American Policing Kristi Pursley CJA/214 August 15, 2011 Don Redden Sir Robert Peel and American Policing The history of policing dates back several thousand years ago when there was no order or peace and inhumane acts upon citizens was the norm with religious, political, or military police acting as the law. Policing was unstable and unorganized. Citizens took the law into their own hands and served as judge, jury, and executioner. There was not such a thing as being â€Å"innocent until proven guilty.† If the community believed an individual was guilty of a crime then the community would handle the offense themselves. American policing stems from the English heritage; crime prevention and control, preventive†¦show more content†¦The United States admired Sir Robert Peel’s principals of policing and therefore adopted it to incorporate into their legal justice system of law enforcement. The government tried to incorporate Sir Robert Peel’s Principals into different cities with no luck or gratitude. In 1838, Boston became the first city to incorporate these principals and have the first organized policing in the United States. In 1845, New York City followed suit. Soon thereafter, Philadelphia followed suit but it did not follow the principals, destroying different forms of policing. Finally, Philadelphia collaborated their policing style to be organized and uphold order by way of Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principals. Sir Robert Peel, known as the ‘father’ of modern policing, set the foundation for organization and structure in modern day policing in London. The United States followed behind shortly thereafter to enlist a police force for order, organization, and service. Peel set up â€Å"Peel’s Nine Principals† which the United States still abides by to this day. The ‘father’ of policing has helped our government to overcome harsh judgment, corruption, and harsh actions, and has made it possible for citizens of this society to bond with local law enforce ment. This has allowed our law enforcement to handle situations appropriately and incorporate bigger agencies to handle more diverse problems throughout theShow MoreRelatedSir Robert Peel Essay847 Words   |  4 PagesSir Robert Peel Review Danny Granillo CJA 214 September 27th, 2011 Jason Hillis Sir Robert Peel Review American policing has been around for years and is extremely likely to be around for hundreds of generations to come. Very early policing and punishments could include public humiliation and even torture. Times have changed since the beginnings of police tactics now it is incredibly uncommon to see public humiliation due to a crime. American policing has changed multiple times over the pastRead MoreEssay on Role of Sir Robert Peel in Starting Community Policing1500 Words   |  6 PagesSir Robert Peel Policing has been a part of America for many decades. In fact, policing was known to exist prior to 1066, the year of the Normandy Invasion of Britain. Throughout the years policing has been a complicated and ongoing progress. The people of England did not have a stabilized policing standard and were often responsible for protecting and serving themselves. As early as the 1600s the Colonial America introduced the English styles of policing; citizens were responsible forRead MoreSir Robert Peel Policing1064 Words   |  5 PagesRunning Head: SIR ROBERT PEEL Sir Robert Peel: Effects on Modern Policing CJA/214 Sir Robert Peel Paper: Effects on Modern Policing Through many years in our history, policing worked without checks and balances, and strictly with trail and error. The structure that was used in those days was not entirely solid in design. There was no procedure to fight crime and law enforcement had no basis. Then, modern policing began in the early nineteenth century. Sir Robert Peek finally allowed for a changeRead MoreSir Robert Peel Essay example691 Words   |  3 PagesSir Robert Peel Paper Sir Robert Peel, Britain’s home secretary felt that preventing crimes and reforming criminals would have a more positive effect on society rather than punishing them (Williams) 2003. This research paper will describe how policing was handled in the early centuries as opposed to policing in America today. This research paper will explain the impact that Sir Robert Peel had on American policing. In the early centuries criminals were punished quite differently. Up until the lastRead MoreHttp: //Contentrader.Com/How-Sir-Robert-Peel-Influenced-Modern-Policing/#Comments1927 Words   |  8 PagesHow Sir Robert Peel Influenced Modern Policing | ContenTrader CONTENTCART OUR MISSION  WRITERS START HERE  INFO FOR BUYERS  TUTORIALS TIPS  TERMS PRIVACY ContenTrader An Open Market for Freelance Writers to Display Sell Written Content. SUBSCRIBE TO CONTENTRADER Search †¦ Enter your email address to subscribe and receive notifications of New Content, Site News, and Specials. CATEGORIES Academic Topics Email Address Activism Addiction Read MoreCompare And Contrast Robert Peel And August Vollmer1377 Words   |  6 PagesRobert Peel and August Vollmer There were many men and woman who made significant contributions to law enforcement and policing but Robert Peel and August Vollmer are some of the most well-known men. Through all of the people who built the law enforcement system the term general service law enforcement agencies is defines by Walker and Katz as agencies that regularly engage in preventing crime, investigation crimes and apprehending criminals, maintaining order, and providing other services. InRead MoreSir Robert Peel Paper920 Words   |  4 Pagesthis paper I will describe the impact of Sir Robert Peel on the evolution of policing and its history. Sir Robert Peel Paper Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) updated Englands criminal code. He established the first modern police force in London, whose members were nicknamed after him bobbies. Sir Robert Peel wanted a police force that would provide citizens with â€Å"the full and complete protection of the law†andâ€Å"check the increase of crime.† Sir Robert Peel pushed through the legislation an act calledRead MoreComparison Contrast: Community Policing vs. Traditional Policing1623 Words   |  7 PagesPolicing in the United States has taken on many different forms and facets in the past 50 years. Although, various modes models of policing styles continue to be introduced, two main aspects of law enforcement have remained constant, (traditional policing community oriented- policing). There are so many different facets, trends, and new emerging technologies in the wide world of law enforcement. First, we will outline a brief history of the origins and evolvement of policing. Special attenti onRead MoreEarly Roots of Policing: Sir Robert Peels (1820s) Nine Principles and Their Connection to Modern2467 Words   |  10 PagesEarly roots of policing: Sir Robert Peel’s (1820s) nine principles and their connection to modern day policing Sir Robert Peel is known in the history books as the person who created the first form of an English police department, called the London Metropolitan Police. However, the first acknowledgement of any sort of police department or criminal justice system occurred 1000 years earlier by the English King Alfred the Great. King Alfred the Great came up with this idea when he was preparingRead MoreThe Role Of Policing During The United States Essay934 Words   |  4 Pagescontribute to today’s American policing. Once such factor that contribute tremendously to today’s policing came in 1829 when Sir Robert Peel’s concept of policing came into effect. This would change the way policing would be performed in not only England, but the United States (U.S) and around the world. Another huge factor that impacts policing is the relationship the U.S. Government has with policing. These factors affect every policing organization in the U.S. Sir Robert Peel had a huge impact

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Hydraulic Fracturing Fracking Essay - 1860 Words

I became interested in hydraulic fracturing, commonly known as â€Å"fracking†, after watching the documentary Gasland II. It chronicled the experiences of those who inhabit areas in proximity to active fracking wells in Pennsylvania. Detailing how their lives had been affected by the drilling. Focusing primarily on water contamination and illnesses that potentially could be linked to the chemicals used in the drilling process. By the end, I had questions about the actual process and what chemicals were used. I was also left wondering about the existence of environment laws and monitoring, if any, which would have ensured the use of only substances safe for humans as well as the environment. Why would this process have been allowed if it†¦show more content†¦The PR firms expound the virtues of natural gas and would have us to believe â€Å"the negative side-effects caused by fracking are insignificant† (Larson 2). They rattle off information on how natur al gas is a clean burning source of energy and how it is now responsible for 30% of electricity production, as well as heating in half of the homes in U.S.; therefore lessening our dependency on foreign suppliers. All positives attributes, granted, but at the end of the day fracking is a business; big business whose primary focus is keeping their shareholders happy with increase revenue. Unfortunately in their quest to make the almighty dollar, they are putting human lives as well as the environment at risk with the use of chemicals that are toxic, some are known carcinogens. To add insult to injury, the government, who is supposed to protect the interests of all, as opposed to the interests of a few, granted the energy companies an exemption from the laws meant to provide protection to humans as well as two irreplaceable resources, water and air. Granting this exemption is a clear indication that public health and the preservation of local ecology were less of a priority than m aking a profit. The list of ingredients used in fracking fluid is long and varied. Some are common, such as salt and citric acid, some are unexpected like coffee and walnut hulls, while others are toxic. A list released by a Congressional committee statesShow MoreRelatedHydraulic Fracturing, or â€Å"Fracking†, is questionable in many people’s eyes. The â€Å"Why† â€Å"How†1700 Words   |  7 PagesHydraulic Fracturing, or â€Å"Fracking†, is questionable in many people’s eyes. The â€Å"Why† â€Å"How† comes up often when hydraulic fracturing is mentioned. Fracking has been tested and proven to be an environmental safe process. Introduced in the 1940’s, hydraulic fracturing has discovered a considerable amount of oil and clean-burning natural gas from underneath the earth’s surface. Fracking contributes in providing well-needed resources from the earth’s surface to increase our country’s energy securityRead MoreFracking : Hydraulic Fracturing ( Fracking ) Essay1505 Words   |  7 PagesNour Alqatami Hydraulic Fracturing Fracking process is a type of drilling water beneath the earth surface in order to access to natural gas and oil. A huge drill is used to pass through many layers of earth and rock that lie between us as the natural gas. The mixture is water, sand and certain chemicals forced into the rock at high pressure in order to force the gas out to where they can collect it. The drill can be driven into the earth either vertically or horizontally. Fracking began as an experimentRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing or Fracking1319 Words   |  5 PagesResearch Paper: Fracking â€Å"A man’s errors are his portals of discovery† (Joyce). The question that arises from this quote is, are some errors worth making in hope for future discovery? One presumable error that is being practiced today is Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking). The debate of this issue is very controversial and it is hard to decide which side of the argument is the right side. But before one can plunge into the debate, one must understand Fracking entirely. Fracking is the process of breakingRead MoreFracking Hydraulic Fracturing601 Words   |  2 Pagesquarter are grade has been studying what is fracking Hydraulic fracturing is the process of drilling down vertically to get natural gas from shale rock layers deep within the earth. Fracking produces natural gas extraction. Recent advancements for the drilling technology have led to new manmade fractures in shale plays that were once not available for exploration.(What is fracking online). I think fracking is not safe becaus e in the areas where Fracking is taking place, it is causing crimes whichRead MoreEssay on Fracking: Water Quality and Hydraulic Fracturing610 Words   |  3 Pages2010 Our Future joe cool OUR FUTURE Joe cool Intro. 105 â€Æ' Our Future 1 Hydraulic fracturing is the propagation of fractures in a rock layer caused by the presence of a pressurized fluid. (wiki 2011). This occurs naturally in nature, but the Hydraulic fracturing that I will speak of in this paper is a process being used by gas companies nationwide. Fracking is currently regulated by the EPA under the clean water act of 2005 ( However, this only partiallyRead More Hydraulic Fracturing: Fracking for a Better World Essay3559 Words   |  15 Pagesa process called hydraulic fracturing, or â€Å"fracking.† But this energy source is highly polarizing, with strong advocates and detractors. While there are many who believe hydraulic fracturing should not be used in the quest for natural resources, the process has a relatively low impact on the environment, and the shale gas that it produces has the potential to change the energy landscape for the better. Contrary to what environmental activists say, hydraulic fracturing is an inherently safeRead MoreFracking : The Value And Limitations Of The Hydraulic Fracturing Debate2038 Words   |  9 PagesDistinguishing Frack from Fiction: The Value and Limitations of the Hydraulic Fracturing Debate in the United States It has long been known that large amounts of natural gas reside in deep layers of sedimentary rock such as shale. However, this gas could not be extracted until recent years due to previous limitations of technology making it economically unfeasible. This is now possible due to developments in drilling technology that now allow drillers to drill horizontally. Millions of gallons ofRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing And Fracking : A Controversial Topic Across The Globe1489 Words   |  6 PagesHydraulic Fracturing or Fracking, as it more commonly known, is a very controversial topic across the globe. In the United States, its status remains the same. Hydraulic fracturing is a method of oil and natural gas production. The process includes the drilling of pipes 1-1.5 miles within the earth. After that pipe is secured and has an impermeable layer around the pipe, a tool that creates small holes within the impermeable layer is sent down through the pipe. It creates holes in the pipe that allo wsRead MoreThe United States Of The Industrial Revolution1720 Words   |  7 Pagescame up with a practice called hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking; this process utilizes water pressure to fracture or break a rock in order to release and collect fuel such as gas or oil. In recent years, companies have mixed sand, chemicals and other proponents to retrieve the maximum amount of gas that each drilling site has to offer. A heated debate has begun concerning these mixtures and the money involved in fracking. While one side asserts that fracking should be banned because of potentialRead MoreEssay about Fracking: Drinking Water and New York664 Words   |  3 PagesFRACKING Purpose: To persuade the audience to help stop the hydraulic fracturing that is happening in New York and other states throughout the country. Thesis: Today I will discuss a very important issue that is happening in our own backyard. Hydraulic Fracturing, also known as â€Å"Fracking†, is contaminating our drinking water, all in the name of â€Å"Energy Reform†. How would you feel if you were able to set water on fire? Well some people in New York and Pennsylvania are literally able to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

ISO 14001 The Impact Essay - 1721 Words

Sustainability Whether an organization is domestic or international they have social responsibilities to the communities they operate within and to the shielding of the world. Caterpillar, Inc. is one such company that puts social responsibility at the top of their priorities. They have an abundance of engineers and technologists working on solutions to improve on sustainability. According to the 2012 Sustainability Report (2012), â€Å"at Caterpillar, we always ask ourselves, ‘What do our customers need? What does the world need?’ World Resources Institute (WRI) asks those same questions about the communities it serves, and truly delivers some amazing results† (p. 19). Caterpillar’s Chairman and CEO, Doug Oberhelman is a member of the†¦show more content†¦89). The article describes in detail the challenges organizations tussle with in implementing this standard. The ISO 14001:1996 implementation process is extremely lengthy and organizational culture plays an important role. As indicated by Wallace, â€Å"an organizational culture is agreed as a distinction of the day-to-day environment as seen and felt by those who work there† (as cited by Balzarova et al., 2006, p. 90). The first organization, based in the North West of England, which the authors performed a case study on was a manufacturer of brass and steel fabricated components. In the last few years, the organization had seen a loss in their profit margin which has forced them to rethink their strategy within the market they operate in. In order to make change, they took on the philosophies of world class manufacturing and to form on highly skilled work force (Balzarova et al., 2006). At this point, upper management also believed the ISO 14001:1996 was in the need of re-implementation because the company had lost certification. Certification was lost due to inadequate pre servation and the absence of commitment (Balzarova et al., 2006). In order to be successful in the re-implementation, the organization had a detailed plan with milestones and individual responsibilities. They did obtain certification but there isShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Iso 14001 On Asian Firms5604 Words   |  23 PagesTHE IMPACT OF ISO 14001 ON ASIAN FIRMS 1, Challenging World of Business in Asia Firms in developed countries have been faced with increasing amounts of pressure to manage and evaluate the impact of their activities on environment as the impacts went well beyond local and regional levels since around the 1970s. Following the developed countries, the same concern has become increasingly obvious in Asia as most of Asian industries have been developed through the export driven style economy and thisRead MoreStrengths and the Weaknesses of Environmental Management System804 Words   |  3 Pagesconsumer’s social expectation of businesses and government set to tighten regulation have urged environmental management. 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ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world s largest developer and publisher of International

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Business Law

Question: Discuss about the Business Law ? Answer : Introduction From the onset it is prudent to underscore the fact that for a contract to be valid there must be a consideration. Consideration must be of value in the eyes in the eyes of the law. For consideration to be valuable there must be a legal benefit or a legal detriment. What amounts to a valuable consideration appears to be flexibly encapsulated in the prominent maxim; consideration needs not to be adequate but sufficient. There has been a raging debate on whether performing a preexisting legal duty amounts to any benefit and the prevailing argument is that it may incur a factual benefit on the promisor and a factual detriment to the promissee. Thus the critical is whether the preexisting legal duty will amount to sufficient consideration. This paper will critically examine the doctrine of consideration in relation to sufficient consideration rule. It also seeks to answer the question on what amounts to a sufficient consideration. The main contention in this paper is that even though con sideration should be attached to value which is regarded as a benefit or a detriment, it need not to be adequate. Sufficient Consideration The rule that consideration must be sufficient and not adequate implies that there must be something of value that is exchanged between the parties. Provided that value has been attached to consideration the court will not pay attention to its adequacy.[1] A valuable consideration in the strict sense of the law entails an interest, detriment, loss, forbearance, benefit of a party to the contract.[2] This implies that even a nominal consideration will be sufficient for the formation of a contract. In Chappell v Nestl[3] the court held that the provision of chocolate bar wrappers was sufficient consideration because they increased sales and thus were of value. The fundamental question is thus how the court determines that consideration is of value and thus can be considered to be sufficient. It has been argued that mere giving up a right that one does not have is not valuable consideration. In White vs. Bluet[4] a son was given money by his father following a promise that he will not complain about the distribution of his father estate in his will. The issue before the court was whether the promise not to complain was a valuable consideration. The court ruled that the son had no right to complain and that such a right is not a valuable consideration in the strict legal sense. On the other hand, what amounts to sufficient consideration may be determined by the parties to the contract at the time of making and concluding the contract. It is upon the parties to the contract to determine when making the agreement what will be adequate consideration but in the eyes of the law the court will not pay attention to adequacy of consideration but onl y sufficiency. It bears noting that although the consideration must incorporate a bargaining process, the bargain should not necessarily be a good bargain.[5] It is imperative to note that for consideration to be sufficient both benefit and detriment occur to the parties although there is not mandatory requirement that they should be both present.[6] Consideration must be sufficient in the eyes of the laws and this implies that the court has the discretion within its jurisdiction to determine the consideration given is sufficient or not.[7] Although the law provides that there must be consideration for any legal contractual relationship it is worth noting that the consideration should not be in equal and exact value to the benefit of loss that has been suffered. If the consideration has value in the legal sense the court will not bother to examine or try to find out the exact value or quantity. Essentially, this implies that if a car is worth $10000 and it sold at $100, the sale price will be regarded as sufficient consideration in the legal sense although it is quite glaring that it is inadequate. In the case of Thomas vs. Thomas[8] the executors of an estate agreed that the widow will pay an annual rent of $1 and maintain the house as long as she remained a widow of the deceased. The issue before the court was whether there was sufficient consideration. The court held that the payment of $ 1 as rent was sufficient consideration. A consideration that is normal normally shows that the promisor has taken his promise to b e a serious undertaking which can be legally enforced. It is also worth noting that a consideration that was given in the past can not be relied on through a promises hat is given in the present. In other words the general rule is that past consideration is not sufficient consideration or good consideration.[9] The promise always comes first then the consideration follows. In the case of ReMcArdle[10] the plaintiff had undertaken to conduct some renovations in her husbands house. She successful completed the renovations and asked the siblings in law to contribute towards the renovations she had made. The siblings promised to make the contributions but later they did not honor the promise. It was held that the promises had been made after a consideration had already been provided and therefore there was no sufficient consideration in that case. In addition the consideration that had been provided was part of her duty to do so as the wife of the deceased. Another finding was made in Roscola v. Thomas[11] where the claimant bought a horse from the defendant and after the transaction had been completed the defendant told the claimant that horse was sound and free from vice. The claimant realized that the horse was not actually sound as was promised. The court held that the consideration had already been provided and the promise was made after consideration has been made therefore a consideration made in the past cannot be sufficient. However, past consideration will only be sufficient consideration if the promisor and the promissee had an initial agreement that the promissee will supply him the goods. In Lampleigh v Braithwait[12] the defendant was guilty for the crime of murder but he needed pardon from the king. He therefore requested the plaintiff to obtain the pardon from the king for him. The plaintiff successfully obtained the pardon and the defendant promised to pay him for that. It was held that consideration had been provided f ollowing the request of the promisor and therefore it was sufficient consideration. The defendant was therefore liable to pay for the promise. If the goods are actually delivered and the promisor makes a promise to pay, the past consideration will be deemed as sufficient consideration. The Privy Council in Pao On v Lau Yiu Long[13] held that past consideration can be sufficient consideration if it is capable of being remunerated and if the partied had an earlier agreement that consideration will be provided first followed by the promise. Lord Scarman remarked that a sufficient consideration implies that it must be real, tangible and it must be attached to some value. The general rule is that a consideration that is illusory is not a sufficient consideration. Illusory considerations are given in the following circumstances, where one is given a promise to do that which is his contractual obligation.[14] In Stilk v. Myrick[15] the defendant promised to pay the plaintiff during a voyage. While they were sailing two of the crew men left the ship and the defendant promised to pay the plaintiff the salaries of the two crewmen who had left. When the ship arrived at the port the defendant refused to pay the plaintiff the amount that was promised. It was held that the doing that which one has an existing contractual obligation to perform does not amount to sufficient consideration. On the other hand performance of an existing legal duty does not also amount to a sufficient consideration in the eyes of the law and it is also regarded as an illusory consideration.[16] In Collins v. Godfroy[17] the plaintiff had been summoned by the court to come be a witnes s in a case that the defendant was part of. The plaintiff never adduced any evidence but the court required that he be available in court through out the session. When the trial had concluded the defendant gave the plaintiff an invoice that indicated that he was being paid for being a witness. Later the defendant refused to pay and the plaintiff sued. The court held that the plaintiff had a legal obligation to perform the act and therefore the consideration provided was not sufficient consideration. If a person undertakes act that is not permitted by law then the act is not a sufficient consideration to a promise. This position was held in Nerot v. Wallace and Others[18] where commissioners who were conducting a bankruptcy process were promised that they will be paid for not investigating a person who was supposed to be adjudged bankrupt. It was held that the act was an illegal act and therefore it could not be a sufficient consideration that has value in the strict legal sense. The performance of an existing legal duty can be a sufficient consideration if there is a practical benefit to of the promise. In Ward v. Byham[19] where a mother promised the father that she will look after the child well and ensure that he is happy and the father will have to contribute towards the maintenance of the child. It was held that the mothers act of taking care of the child although it is her duty to do so amounted to a sufficient consideration. Lord denning held that a promise to do that which one is legally meant to do can be sufficient consideration for a new promise. It has been argued the ratio decidendi of the case by lord denning is ambiguous and has not given a clear definition if the sufficient consideration in the facts of the case. However, the decisions appear to have been made in the interest of justice. The practical benefit rule was applied by in Williams v Roffey Bros Nicholls (contractor)[20] where the court held that the promise to make extra payment on an already existing duty was a sufficient consideration because there was a practical benefit following the new promise. In Musumeci v Winadell Pty Ltd.[21] the court held that a promise that has been made to reduce the usual rent charged and the consideration that was given by the tenant was sufficient consideration that had value in the legal sense. It has also been held that a promise that has been made to do an act that is vague and uncertain is not enforceable because the uncertain act does not amount to a sufficient consideration. This position was affirmed in White v. Bluett[22] where the court held that the consideration was vague and uncertain and it could not amount to a sufficient consideration. Conclusion It can be conceded that the doctrine of sufficient consideration has a wide application in various contract formations and the making of promises. It is also a plausible conclusion that consideration must neither be of commercial value nor make any economical sense.[23] It can be observed from the illustrations made above that the court has been careful to ensure that it enforces the wishes and express agreement of the parties. This is based on the fact that court has not paid attention to equivalence in value of the considerations that have ben exchanged by the parties. The court has accepted that no matter how trivial consideration may be it is regarded as sufficient consideration in the legal sense if it is valuable. Consideration must not be of a high value which implies that it must not be adequate. It can be concluded that the rule that consideration must be sufficient and not adequate has acted as a preventive mechanism to prevent the promisor from not going back on his promis e to claim for an adequate consideration. References Chappell Co Ltd v Nestle Co Ltd [1959] UKHL 1 Collins v Godefrey (1831) 1 B Ad 950 Eastwood v Kenyon (1840), 11 AdE 438 Ewan McKendrick, Contract Law: Text, Cases and Materials, (Oxford University Press, 2005) John Carter, and David Harland, Cases and materials on contract law in Australia ,(Butterworths 1998 Joseph Chitty, Chitty on Contracts, (Sweet Maxwell 2004) Lampleigh v Braithwaite [1615] EWHC KB J17 Musumeci v Winadell Pty Ltd. (1994) 34 NSWLR 723 Pao on v Lau Yiu Long [1979] 3 All ER 65 Patrick Atiyah, Essays on Contract, (Oxford University Press, 1990) Poole, J (2006) Textbook on Contract Law, Oxford University Press Re McArdle (1951) Ch 669 Robert Upex, and Bennett Geoffery, "Davies On Contract. (Sweet Maxwell London,2004) Roscorla v. Thomas (1842) 3 QB 234 Stilk v Myrick [1809] EWHC KB J58 Thomas v Thomas (1842) 2 QB 851 Ward v Byham [1956] 1 WLR 496 White v Bluett (1853) 23 LJ Ex 36 Williams v Roffey Bros Nicholls (Contractors) Ltd [1989] EWCA Civ 5 [1] Upex Robert., and Bennett Geoffery "Davies On Contract. (Sweet Maxwell London,2004) [2] Currie v Misa (1875) LR 10 Ex 153 [3] [1959] UKHL 1 [4] (1853) 23 LJ Ex 36 [5] McKendrick Ewan, Contract Law: Text, Cases and Materials, (Oxford University Press, 2005) [6] Ibid n4 [7] Ibid n4 [8] (1842) 2 QB 851 [9] Eastwood v Kenyon (1840), 11 AdE 438 [10] (1951) Ch 669 [11] (1842) 3 QB 234 [12] [1615] EWHC KB J17 If a person undertakes act that is not permitted by law then the act is not a sufficient consideration to a promise. This position was held in Nerot v. Wallace and Others[18] where commissioneReferencesrs who were [13] [1979] 3 All ER 65 [14] Carter John, and Harland, David. Cases and materials on contract law in Australia ,(Butterworths 1998) [15] [1809] EWHC KB J58 [16] Chitty Joseph, Chitty on Contracts, (Sweet Maxwell 2004) [17] (1831) 1 B Ad 950 [18] 462 U.S. 296 (1983) [19] [1956] 1 WLR 496 [20] [1989] EWCA Civ 5 [21] (1994) 34 NSWLR 723 [22] (1853) 23 LJ Ex 36 [23] Atiyah, Patrick. Essays on Contract, (Oxford University Press, 1990)