Sunday, May 24, 2020

Sir Robert Peel and American Policing - 962 Words

Sir Robert Peel and American Policing Kristi Pursley CJA/214 August 15, 2011 Don Redden Sir Robert Peel and American Policing The history of policing dates back several thousand years ago when there was no order or peace and inhumane acts upon citizens was the norm with religious, political, or military police acting as the law. Policing was unstable and unorganized. Citizens took the law into their own hands and served as judge, jury, and executioner. There was not such a thing as being â€Å"innocent until proven guilty.† If the community believed an individual was guilty of a crime then the community would handle the offense themselves. American policing stems from the English heritage; crime prevention and control, preventive†¦show more content†¦The United States admired Sir Robert Peel’s principals of policing and therefore adopted it to incorporate into their legal justice system of law enforcement. The government tried to incorporate Sir Robert Peel’s Principals into different cities with no luck or gratitude. In 1838, Boston became the first city to incorporate these principals and have the first organized policing in the United States. In 1845, New York City followed suit. Soon thereafter, Philadelphia followed suit but it did not follow the principals, destroying different forms of policing. Finally, Philadelphia collaborated their policing style to be organized and uphold order by way of Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principals. Sir Robert Peel, known as the ‘father’ of modern policing, set the foundation for organization and structure in modern day policing in London. The United States followed behind shortly thereafter to enlist a police force for order, organization, and service. Peel set up â€Å"Peel’s Nine Principals† which the United States still abides by to this day. The ‘father’ of policing has helped our government to overcome harsh judgment, corruption, and harsh actions, and has made it possible for citizens of this society to bond with local law enforce ment. This has allowed our law enforcement to handle situations appropriately and incorporate bigger agencies to handle more diverse problems throughout theShow MoreRelatedSir Robert Peel Essay847 Words   |  4 PagesSir Robert Peel Review Danny Granillo CJA 214 September 27th, 2011 Jason Hillis Sir Robert Peel Review American policing has been around for years and is extremely likely to be around for hundreds of generations to come. Very early policing and punishments could include public humiliation and even torture. Times have changed since the beginnings of police tactics now it is incredibly uncommon to see public humiliation due to a crime. American policing has changed multiple times over the pastRead MoreEssay on Role of Sir Robert Peel in Starting Community Policing1500 Words   |  6 PagesSir Robert Peel Policing has been a part of America for many decades. In fact, policing was known to exist prior to 1066, the year of the Normandy Invasion of Britain. Throughout the years policing has been a complicated and ongoing progress. The people of England did not have a stabilized policing standard and were often responsible for protecting and serving themselves. As early as the 1600s the Colonial America introduced the English styles of policing; citizens were responsible forRead MoreSir Robert Peel Policing1064 Words   |  5 PagesRunning Head: SIR ROBERT PEEL Sir Robert Peel: Effects on Modern Policing CJA/214 Sir Robert Peel Paper: Effects on Modern Policing Through many years in our history, policing worked without checks and balances, and strictly with trail and error. The structure that was used in those days was not entirely solid in design. There was no procedure to fight crime and law enforcement had no basis. Then, modern policing began in the early nineteenth century. Sir Robert Peek finally allowed for a changeRead MoreSir Robert Peel Essay example691 Words   |  3 PagesSir Robert Peel Paper Sir Robert Peel, Britain’s home secretary felt that preventing crimes and reforming criminals would have a more positive effect on society rather than punishing them (Williams) 2003. This research paper will describe how policing was handled in the early centuries as opposed to policing in America today. This research paper will explain the impact that Sir Robert Peel had on American policing. In the early centuries criminals were punished quite differently. Up until the lastRead MoreHttp: //Contentrader.Com/How-Sir-Robert-Peel-Influenced-Modern-Policing/#Comments1927 Words   |  8 PagesHow Sir Robert Peel Influenced Modern Policing | ContenTrader CONTENTCART OUR MISSION  WRITERS START HERE  INFO FOR BUYERS  TUTORIALS TIPS  TERMS PRIVACY ContenTrader An Open Market for Freelance Writers to Display Sell Written Content. SUBSCRIBE TO CONTENTRADER Search †¦ Enter your email address to subscribe and receive notifications of New Content, Site News, and Specials. CATEGORIES Academic Topics Email Address Activism Addiction Read MoreCompare And Contrast Robert Peel And August Vollmer1377 Words   |  6 PagesRobert Peel and August Vollmer There were many men and woman who made significant contributions to law enforcement and policing but Robert Peel and August Vollmer are some of the most well-known men. Through all of the people who built the law enforcement system the term general service law enforcement agencies is defines by Walker and Katz as agencies that regularly engage in preventing crime, investigation crimes and apprehending criminals, maintaining order, and providing other services. InRead MoreSir Robert Peel Paper920 Words   |  4 Pagesthis paper I will describe the impact of Sir Robert Peel on the evolution of policing and its history. Sir Robert Peel Paper Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) updated Englands criminal code. He established the first modern police force in London, whose members were nicknamed after him bobbies. Sir Robert Peel wanted a police force that would provide citizens with â€Å"the full and complete protection of the law†andâ€Å"check the increase of crime.† Sir Robert Peel pushed through the legislation an act calledRead MoreComparison Contrast: Community Policing vs. Traditional Policing1623 Words   |  7 PagesPolicing in the United States has taken on many different forms and facets in the past 50 years. Although, various modes models of policing styles continue to be introduced, two main aspects of law enforcement have remained constant, (traditional policing community oriented- policing). There are so many different facets, trends, and new emerging technologies in the wide world of law enforcement. First, we will outline a brief history of the origins and evolvement of policing. Special attenti onRead MoreEarly Roots of Policing: Sir Robert Peels (1820s) Nine Principles and Their Connection to Modern2467 Words   |  10 PagesEarly roots of policing: Sir Robert Peel’s (1820s) nine principles and their connection to modern day policing Sir Robert Peel is known in the history books as the person who created the first form of an English police department, called the London Metropolitan Police. However, the first acknowledgement of any sort of police department or criminal justice system occurred 1000 years earlier by the English King Alfred the Great. King Alfred the Great came up with this idea when he was preparingRead MoreThe Role Of Policing During The United States Essay934 Words   |  4 Pagescontribute to today’s American policing. Once such factor that contribute tremendously to today’s policing came in 1829 when Sir Robert Peel’s concept of policing came into effect. This would change the way policing would be performed in not only England, but the United States (U.S) and around the world. Another huge factor that impacts policing is the relationship the U.S. Government has with policing. These factors affect every policing organization in the U.S. Sir Robert Peel had a huge impact

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Hydraulic Fracturing Fracking Essay - 1860 Words

I became interested in hydraulic fracturing, commonly known as â€Å"fracking†, after watching the documentary Gasland II. It chronicled the experiences of those who inhabit areas in proximity to active fracking wells in Pennsylvania. Detailing how their lives had been affected by the drilling. Focusing primarily on water contamination and illnesses that potentially could be linked to the chemicals used in the drilling process. By the end, I had questions about the actual process and what chemicals were used. I was also left wondering about the existence of environment laws and monitoring, if any, which would have ensured the use of only substances safe for humans as well as the environment. Why would this process have been allowed if it†¦show more content†¦The PR firms expound the virtues of natural gas and would have us to believe â€Å"the negative side-effects caused by fracking are insignificant† (Larson 2). They rattle off information on how natur al gas is a clean burning source of energy and how it is now responsible for 30% of electricity production, as well as heating in half of the homes in U.S.; therefore lessening our dependency on foreign suppliers. All positives attributes, granted, but at the end of the day fracking is a business; big business whose primary focus is keeping their shareholders happy with increase revenue. Unfortunately in their quest to make the almighty dollar, they are putting human lives as well as the environment at risk with the use of chemicals that are toxic, some are known carcinogens. To add insult to injury, the government, who is supposed to protect the interests of all, as opposed to the interests of a few, granted the energy companies an exemption from the laws meant to provide protection to humans as well as two irreplaceable resources, water and air. Granting this exemption is a clear indication that public health and the preservation of local ecology were less of a priority than m aking a profit. The list of ingredients used in fracking fluid is long and varied. Some are common, such as salt and citric acid, some are unexpected like coffee and walnut hulls, while others are toxic. A list released by a Congressional committee statesShow MoreRelatedHydraulic Fracturing, or â€Å"Fracking†, is questionable in many people’s eyes. The â€Å"Why† â€Å"How†1700 Words   |  7 PagesHydraulic Fracturing, or â€Å"Fracking†, is questionable in many people’s eyes. The â€Å"Why† â€Å"How† comes up often when hydraulic fracturing is mentioned. Fracking has been tested and proven to be an environmental safe process. Introduced in the 1940’s, hydraulic fracturing has discovered a considerable amount of oil and clean-burning natural gas from underneath the earth’s surface. Fracking contributes in providing well-needed resources from the earth’s surface to increase our country’s energy securityRead MoreFracking : Hydraulic Fracturing ( Fracking ) Essay1505 Words   |  7 PagesNour Alqatami Hydraulic Fracturing Fracking process is a type of drilling water beneath the earth surface in order to access to natural gas and oil. A huge drill is used to pass through many layers of earth and rock that lie between us as the natural gas. The mixture is water, sand and certain chemicals forced into the rock at high pressure in order to force the gas out to where they can collect it. The drill can be driven into the earth either vertically or horizontally. Fracking began as an experimentRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing or Fracking1319 Words   |  5 PagesResearch Paper: Fracking â€Å"A man’s errors are his portals of discovery† (Joyce). The question that arises from this quote is, are some errors worth making in hope for future discovery? One presumable error that is being practiced today is Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking). The debate of this issue is very controversial and it is hard to decide which side of the argument is the right side. But before one can plunge into the debate, one must understand Fracking entirely. Fracking is the process of breakingRead MoreFracking Hydraulic Fracturing601 Words   |  2 Pagesquarter are grade has been studying what is fracking Hydraulic fracturing is the process of drilling down vertically to get natural gas from shale rock layers deep within the earth. Fracking produces natural gas extraction. Recent advancements for the drilling technology have led to new manmade fractures in shale plays that were once not available for exploration.(What is fracking online). I think fracking is not safe becaus e in the areas where Fracking is taking place, it is causing crimes whichRead MoreEssay on Fracking: Water Quality and Hydraulic Fracturing610 Words   |  3 Pages2010 Our Future joe cool OUR FUTURE Joe cool Intro. 105 â€Æ' Our Future 1 Hydraulic fracturing is the propagation of fractures in a rock layer caused by the presence of a pressurized fluid. (wiki 2011). This occurs naturally in nature, but the Hydraulic fracturing that I will speak of in this paper is a process being used by gas companies nationwide. Fracking is currently regulated by the EPA under the clean water act of 2005 (EPA.gov). However, this only partiallyRead More Hydraulic Fracturing: Fracking for a Better World Essay3559 Words   |  15 Pagesa process called hydraulic fracturing, or â€Å"fracking.† But this energy source is highly polarizing, with strong advocates and detractors. While there are many who believe hydraulic fracturing should not be used in the quest for natural resources, the process has a relatively low impact on the environment, and the shale gas that it produces has the potential to change the energy landscape for the better. Contrary to what environmental activists say, hydraulic fracturing is an inherently safeRead MoreFracking : The Value And Limitations Of The Hydraulic Fracturing Debate2038 Words   |  9 PagesDistinguishing Frack from Fiction: The Value and Limitations of the Hydraulic Fracturing Debate in the United States It has long been known that large amounts of natural gas reside in deep layers of sedimentary rock such as shale. However, this gas could not be extracted until recent years due to previous limitations of technology making it economically unfeasible. This is now possible due to developments in drilling technology that now allow drillers to drill horizontally. Millions of gallons ofRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing And Fracking : A Controversial Topic Across The Globe1489 Words   |  6 PagesHydraulic Fracturing or Fracking, as it more commonly known, is a very controversial topic across the globe. In the United States, its status remains the same. Hydraulic fracturing is a method of oil and natural gas production. The process includes the drilling of pipes 1-1.5 miles within the earth. After that pipe is secured and has an impermeable layer around the pipe, a tool that creates small holes within the impermeable layer is sent down through the pipe. It creates holes in the pipe that allo wsRead MoreThe United States Of The Industrial Revolution1720 Words   |  7 Pagescame up with a practice called hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking; this process utilizes water pressure to fracture or break a rock in order to release and collect fuel such as gas or oil. In recent years, companies have mixed sand, chemicals and other proponents to retrieve the maximum amount of gas that each drilling site has to offer. A heated debate has begun concerning these mixtures and the money involved in fracking. While one side asserts that fracking should be banned because of potentialRead MoreEssay about Fracking: Drinking Water and New York664 Words   |  3 PagesFRACKING Purpose: To persuade the audience to help stop the hydraulic fracturing that is happening in New York and other states throughout the country. Thesis: Today I will discuss a very important issue that is happening in our own backyard. Hydraulic Fracturing, also known as â€Å"Fracking†, is contaminating our drinking water, all in the name of â€Å"Energy Reform†. How would you feel if you were able to set water on fire? Well some people in New York and Pennsylvania are literally able to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

ISO 14001 The Impact Essay - 1721 Words

Sustainability Whether an organization is domestic or international they have social responsibilities to the communities they operate within and to the shielding of the world. Caterpillar, Inc. is one such company that puts social responsibility at the top of their priorities. They have an abundance of engineers and technologists working on solutions to improve on sustainability. According to the 2012 Sustainability Report (2012), â€Å"at Caterpillar, we always ask ourselves, ‘What do our customers need? What does the world need?’ World Resources Institute (WRI) asks those same questions about the communities it serves, and truly delivers some amazing results† (p. 19). Caterpillar’s Chairman and CEO, Doug Oberhelman is a member of the†¦show more content†¦89). The article describes in detail the challenges organizations tussle with in implementing this standard. The ISO 14001:1996 implementation process is extremely lengthy and organizational culture plays an important role. As indicated by Wallace, â€Å"an organizational culture is agreed as a distinction of the day-to-day environment as seen and felt by those who work there† (as cited by Balzarova et al., 2006, p. 90). The first organization, based in the North West of England, which the authors performed a case study on was a manufacturer of brass and steel fabricated components. In the last few years, the organization had seen a loss in their profit margin which has forced them to rethink their strategy within the market they operate in. In order to make change, they took on the philosophies of world class manufacturing and to form on highly skilled work force (Balzarova et al., 2006). At this point, upper management also believed the ISO 14001:1996 was in the need of re-implementation because the company had lost certification. Certification was lost due to inadequate pre servation and the absence of commitment (Balzarova et al., 2006). In order to be successful in the re-implementation, the organization had a detailed plan with milestones and individual responsibilities. They did obtain certification but there isShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Iso 14001 On Asian Firms5604 Words   |  23 PagesTHE IMPACT OF ISO 14001 ON ASIAN FIRMS 1, Challenging World of Business in Asia Firms in developed countries have been faced with increasing amounts of pressure to manage and evaluate the impact of their activities on environment as the impacts went well beyond local and regional levels since around the 1970s. Following the developed countries, the same concern has become increasingly obvious in Asia as most of Asian industries have been developed through the export driven style economy and thisRead MoreStrengths and the Weaknesses of Environmental Management System804 Words   |  3 Pagesconsumer’s social expectation of businesses and government set to tighten regulation have urged environmental management. Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) are strategic management tools that outline the way an organization will address its impacts on the natural environment (Feng et al. 2014, 2901). One business main activities including day-to-day operations, long-term planning as well as other quality management systems have incorporate with environmental mana gement function in an EMS (AustralianRead MoreA Brief Note On The European Union s Ems Standards Essay1904 Words   |  8 Pages(EMAS) and ISO 14000 whereby BS 7750 is referred as the first EMS that published in 1992, finalized in 1996 and as the basis for the other two standards (Cheremisinoff Haddadin, 2006). EMAS is the European Union’s EMS standard that first introduced in July 1993 with the objective of â€Å"promote a harmonious and balanced of develop economic activities by having the commitment from organization and continuously improve their environmental performance† (European Commision, March 4, 2015). Lastly, ISO 14000Read MoreEnvironmental Management Systems And Principles1473 Words   |  6 Pagesnecessary guidance for companies to reduce their impacts on the environment. Environmental Management is not only being applied by the United States (US) regions, but along all countries within the world. Within few decades, other approaches such as social res ponsibility and sustainable development have arisen. According to ISO 26000:2010 Guidance on Social Responsibility: Social responsibility is the responsibility of an organization for the impacts of its decisions and activities on society and theRead MoreImplementing Environmental Aspects Into Business Operations And Product Standards1465 Words   |  6 Pagesto incorporate environmental aspects into business operations and product standards. This series is the ISO 14000. The main goal for the ISO 14000 is to minimize harmful effects on the environment due to the activities performed by a corporation and to improve its environmental performance. Some benefits from the ISO 14000 include: 1) Cost reduction and increased efficiency aspects of the ISO standards. 2) Pollution prevention and waste reduction opportunities 3) Reduction in consumption of energyRead MoreEnergy and Environment1095 Words   |  5 PagesMarital Status: Single Passport No: G-2237865 |Field of Interest | Environnent Management, Environnent Monitoring, ISO-14001 :2008, ISO 9001 :2008, Waste Management, Environnent (PCB), AERB(DoAE) and BEE (MoP) Complaisance. CSR, |Academic Qualifications | Read MoreGranite And Construction Of Granite1405 Words   |  6 Pagesof granite in the streetscape is primarily in the form of kerbstones that act as a barrier between paving and road surfaces. Granite kerbs are selected for use because of their durability and also for their aesthetic qualities. The environmental impacts of obtaining granite are those related to quarrying and the emissions from transporting a heavy material. Granite is no longer able to be sourced from the UK in significant quantities for commercial production. Most Granite kerb suppliers importRead MoreCoca Cola Green Initiatives1032 Words   |  5 Pagescompany has changed the materials used in production. In the Philippines the company has rolled out Ultra Glass which has reduced the use of glass materials by 20%. Ultra glass was introduced in 2000 by Coca Cola, the bottle is designed to improve impact resistance, and reduce weight and cost. The materials are 40% stronger, 20% lighter and 10% less expensive than traditional bottles. The company is investing in recycling programs. Currently Coca Cola recovers approximately 36% of materials sentRead MoreThe Top Management Of Waste Management Essay1410 Words   |  6 Pagespriorities for environmental sustainability strategy. Waste management entails a responsible operation toward the environment and thus ISO certification. The ISO 14001 Environment Management System (EMS) standard is geared to the management of the immediate and long term environmental impacts of an organization’s processes, services, and products. Under the ISO 14001 framework for environmental management best practice, organizations improve their business sustainably; comply with the appropriate environmentalRead MoreIso Standards and Tqm4413 Words   |  18 PagesFOCUS ON TQM, EQM AND ISO INTRODUCTION Environment may be broadly understood to mean our surroundings. It can be divided into non-living and living components. The Environment provides resources which support life on the earth and which also help in the growth of a relationship of interchange between living organisms and the environment in which they live. ISO †¢ What? ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world s largest developer and publisher of International

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Business Law

Question: Discuss about the Business Law ? Answer : Introduction From the onset it is prudent to underscore the fact that for a contract to be valid there must be a consideration. Consideration must be of value in the eyes in the eyes of the law. For consideration to be valuable there must be a legal benefit or a legal detriment. What amounts to a valuable consideration appears to be flexibly encapsulated in the prominent maxim; consideration needs not to be adequate but sufficient. There has been a raging debate on whether performing a preexisting legal duty amounts to any benefit and the prevailing argument is that it may incur a factual benefit on the promisor and a factual detriment to the promissee. Thus the critical is whether the preexisting legal duty will amount to sufficient consideration. This paper will critically examine the doctrine of consideration in relation to sufficient consideration rule. It also seeks to answer the question on what amounts to a sufficient consideration. The main contention in this paper is that even though con sideration should be attached to value which is regarded as a benefit or a detriment, it need not to be adequate. Sufficient Consideration The rule that consideration must be sufficient and not adequate implies that there must be something of value that is exchanged between the parties. Provided that value has been attached to consideration the court will not pay attention to its adequacy.[1] A valuable consideration in the strict sense of the law entails an interest, detriment, loss, forbearance, benefit of a party to the contract.[2] This implies that even a nominal consideration will be sufficient for the formation of a contract. In Chappell v Nestl[3] the court held that the provision of chocolate bar wrappers was sufficient consideration because they increased sales and thus were of value. The fundamental question is thus how the court determines that consideration is of value and thus can be considered to be sufficient. It has been argued that mere giving up a right that one does not have is not valuable consideration. In White vs. Bluet[4] a son was given money by his father following a promise that he will not complain about the distribution of his father estate in his will. The issue before the court was whether the promise not to complain was a valuable consideration. The court ruled that the son had no right to complain and that such a right is not a valuable consideration in the strict legal sense. On the other hand, what amounts to sufficient consideration may be determined by the parties to the contract at the time of making and concluding the contract. It is upon the parties to the contract to determine when making the agreement what will be adequate consideration but in the eyes of the law the court will not pay attention to adequacy of consideration but onl y sufficiency. It bears noting that although the consideration must incorporate a bargaining process, the bargain should not necessarily be a good bargain.[5] It is imperative to note that for consideration to be sufficient both benefit and detriment occur to the parties although there is not mandatory requirement that they should be both present.[6] Consideration must be sufficient in the eyes of the laws and this implies that the court has the discretion within its jurisdiction to determine the consideration given is sufficient or not.[7] Although the law provides that there must be consideration for any legal contractual relationship it is worth noting that the consideration should not be in equal and exact value to the benefit of loss that has been suffered. If the consideration has value in the legal sense the court will not bother to examine or try to find out the exact value or quantity. Essentially, this implies that if a car is worth $10000 and it sold at $100, the sale price will be regarded as sufficient consideration in the legal sense although it is quite glaring that it is inadequate. In the case of Thomas vs. Thomas[8] the executors of an estate agreed that the widow will pay an annual rent of $1 and maintain the house as long as she remained a widow of the deceased. The issue before the court was whether there was sufficient consideration. The court held that the payment of $ 1 as rent was sufficient consideration. A consideration that is normal normally shows that the promisor has taken his promise to b e a serious undertaking which can be legally enforced. It is also worth noting that a consideration that was given in the past can not be relied on through a promises hat is given in the present. In other words the general rule is that past consideration is not sufficient consideration or good consideration.[9] The promise always comes first then the consideration follows. In the case of ReMcArdle[10] the plaintiff had undertaken to conduct some renovations in her husbands house. She successful completed the renovations and asked the siblings in law to contribute towards the renovations she had made. The siblings promised to make the contributions but later they did not honor the promise. It was held that the promises had been made after a consideration had already been provided and therefore there was no sufficient consideration in that case. In addition the consideration that had been provided was part of her duty to do so as the wife of the deceased. Another finding was made in Roscola v. Thomas[11] where the claimant bought a horse from the defendant and after the transaction had been completed the defendant told the claimant that horse was sound and free from vice. The claimant realized that the horse was not actually sound as was promised. The court held that the consideration had already been provided and the promise was made after consideration has been made therefore a consideration made in the past cannot be sufficient. However, past consideration will only be sufficient consideration if the promisor and the promissee had an initial agreement that the promissee will supply him the goods. In Lampleigh v Braithwait[12] the defendant was guilty for the crime of murder but he needed pardon from the king. He therefore requested the plaintiff to obtain the pardon from the king for him. The plaintiff successfully obtained the pardon and the defendant promised to pay him for that. It was held that consideration had been provided f ollowing the request of the promisor and therefore it was sufficient consideration. The defendant was therefore liable to pay for the promise. If the goods are actually delivered and the promisor makes a promise to pay, the past consideration will be deemed as sufficient consideration. The Privy Council in Pao On v Lau Yiu Long[13] held that past consideration can be sufficient consideration if it is capable of being remunerated and if the partied had an earlier agreement that consideration will be provided first followed by the promise. Lord Scarman remarked that a sufficient consideration implies that it must be real, tangible and it must be attached to some value. The general rule is that a consideration that is illusory is not a sufficient consideration. Illusory considerations are given in the following circumstances, where one is given a promise to do that which is his contractual obligation.[14] In Stilk v. Myrick[15] the defendant promised to pay the plaintiff during a voyage. While they were sailing two of the crew men left the ship and the defendant promised to pay the plaintiff the salaries of the two crewmen who had left. When the ship arrived at the port the defendant refused to pay the plaintiff the amount that was promised. It was held that the doing that which one has an existing contractual obligation to perform does not amount to sufficient consideration. On the other hand performance of an existing legal duty does not also amount to a sufficient consideration in the eyes of the law and it is also regarded as an illusory consideration.[16] In Collins v. Godfroy[17] the plaintiff had been summoned by the court to come be a witnes s in a case that the defendant was part of. The plaintiff never adduced any evidence but the court required that he be available in court through out the session. When the trial had concluded the defendant gave the plaintiff an invoice that indicated that he was being paid for being a witness. Later the defendant refused to pay and the plaintiff sued. The court held that the plaintiff had a legal obligation to perform the act and therefore the consideration provided was not sufficient consideration. If a person undertakes act that is not permitted by law then the act is not a sufficient consideration to a promise. This position was held in Nerot v. Wallace and Others[18] where commissioners who were conducting a bankruptcy process were promised that they will be paid for not investigating a person who was supposed to be adjudged bankrupt. It was held that the act was an illegal act and therefore it could not be a sufficient consideration that has value in the strict legal sense. The performance of an existing legal duty can be a sufficient consideration if there is a practical benefit to of the promise. In Ward v. Byham[19] where a mother promised the father that she will look after the child well and ensure that he is happy and the father will have to contribute towards the maintenance of the child. It was held that the mothers act of taking care of the child although it is her duty to do so amounted to a sufficient consideration. Lord denning held that a promise to do that which one is legally meant to do can be sufficient consideration for a new promise. It has been argued the ratio decidendi of the case by lord denning is ambiguous and has not given a clear definition if the sufficient consideration in the facts of the case. However, the decisions appear to have been made in the interest of justice. The practical benefit rule was applied by in Williams v Roffey Bros Nicholls (contractor)[20] where the court held that the promise to make extra payment on an already existing duty was a sufficient consideration because there was a practical benefit following the new promise. In Musumeci v Winadell Pty Ltd.[21] the court held that a promise that has been made to reduce the usual rent charged and the consideration that was given by the tenant was sufficient consideration that had value in the legal sense. It has also been held that a promise that has been made to do an act that is vague and uncertain is not enforceable because the uncertain act does not amount to a sufficient consideration. This position was affirmed in White v. Bluett[22] where the court held that the consideration was vague and uncertain and it could not amount to a sufficient consideration. Conclusion It can be conceded that the doctrine of sufficient consideration has a wide application in various contract formations and the making of promises. It is also a plausible conclusion that consideration must neither be of commercial value nor make any economical sense.[23] It can be observed from the illustrations made above that the court has been careful to ensure that it enforces the wishes and express agreement of the parties. This is based on the fact that court has not paid attention to equivalence in value of the considerations that have ben exchanged by the parties. The court has accepted that no matter how trivial consideration may be it is regarded as sufficient consideration in the legal sense if it is valuable. Consideration must not be of a high value which implies that it must not be adequate. It can be concluded that the rule that consideration must be sufficient and not adequate has acted as a preventive mechanism to prevent the promisor from not going back on his promis e to claim for an adequate consideration. References Chappell Co Ltd v Nestle Co Ltd [1959] UKHL 1 Collins v Godefrey (1831) 1 B Ad 950 Eastwood v Kenyon (1840), 11 AdE 438 Ewan McKendrick, Contract Law: Text, Cases and Materials, (Oxford University Press, 2005) John Carter, and David Harland, Cases and materials on contract law in Australia ,(Butterworths 1998 Joseph Chitty, Chitty on Contracts, (Sweet Maxwell 2004) Lampleigh v Braithwaite [1615] EWHC KB J17 Musumeci v Winadell Pty Ltd. (1994) 34 NSWLR 723 Pao on v Lau Yiu Long [1979] 3 All ER 65 Patrick Atiyah, Essays on Contract, (Oxford University Press, 1990) Poole, J (2006) Textbook on Contract Law, Oxford University Press Re McArdle (1951) Ch 669 Robert Upex, and Bennett Geoffery, "Davies On Contract. (Sweet Maxwell London,2004) Roscorla v. Thomas (1842) 3 QB 234 Stilk v Myrick [1809] EWHC KB J58 Thomas v Thomas (1842) 2 QB 851 Ward v Byham [1956] 1 WLR 496 White v Bluett (1853) 23 LJ Ex 36 Williams v Roffey Bros Nicholls (Contractors) Ltd [1989] EWCA Civ 5 [1] Upex Robert., and Bennett Geoffery "Davies On Contract. (Sweet Maxwell London,2004) [2] Currie v Misa (1875) LR 10 Ex 153 [3] [1959] UKHL 1 [4] (1853) 23 LJ Ex 36 [5] McKendrick Ewan, Contract Law: Text, Cases and Materials, (Oxford University Press, 2005) [6] Ibid n4 [7] Ibid n4 [8] (1842) 2 QB 851 [9] Eastwood v Kenyon (1840), 11 AdE 438 [10] (1951) Ch 669 [11] (1842) 3 QB 234 [12] [1615] EWHC KB J17 If a person undertakes act that is not permitted by law then the act is not a sufficient consideration to a promise. This position was held in Nerot v. Wallace and Others[18] where commissioneReferencesrs who were [13] [1979] 3 All ER 65 [14] Carter John, and Harland, David. Cases and materials on contract law in Australia ,(Butterworths 1998) [15] [1809] EWHC KB J58 [16] Chitty Joseph, Chitty on Contracts, (Sweet Maxwell 2004) [17] (1831) 1 B Ad 950 [18] 462 U.S. 296 (1983) [19] [1956] 1 WLR 496 [20] [1989] EWCA Civ 5 [21] (1994) 34 NSWLR 723 [22] (1853) 23 LJ Ex 36 [23] Atiyah, Patrick. Essays on Contract, (Oxford University Press, 1990)

Friday, April 3, 2020

The Fate of a Hero in Beowulf Essay Example For Students

The Fate of a Hero in Beowulf Essay The Fate of a HeroFor a brief while your strength is in bloom/ but it fades quickly; and soon there will follow/ illness or the sword to lay you low and death will arrive, dear warrior, to sweep you away(1761-8). Hrothgar bestows his wisdom onto Beowulf after Beowulf has defeated Grendel and his mother. Hrothgar reminds him not to let pride overcome him for everything is eventually defeated due to the power of fate. This exemplifies a theme woven throughout the story of Beowulf. Beowulf is presented as a valiant hero, slaying beasts with his mighty strength and demonstrating the importance of the balance between wisdom and strength, but as the story unfolds Beowulf slowly loses his vitality until eventually he is defeated. This shows the power of fate has on everyone; no exceptions. This paper will demonstrate the heroic qualities of Beowulf and show his gradual decline through the approaches and outcomes of his three battles with the monsters. In the beginning of the story, Beowulfs journey brings him to the land of the Danes where he is first intruded upon by a coast guard. Immediately upon seeing Beowulf the coast guard remarks on his impressive appearance. Nor have I seen/ a mightier man-at-arms on this Earth/ than the one standing here: unless I am mistaken,/ he is truly noble (247-50). A warrior named Wulfgar, impressed by Beowulf and his men, delivers his request for passage into the land of Denmark from King of the Danes, Hrothgar. His family background and reputation are familiar to Hrothgar, and he eagerly welcomes them to Denmark. Wulfgar reports back to Beowulf, My lord, the conquering king of Danes, bids me announce that he knows you ancestry: also that he welcomes you here to Herot (391-3). This scene shows the importance of appearance and reputation, without which Beowulf may never have been admitted to the land of the Danes at all. Once he gains passage into Denmark, Beowulf talks with Hrothgar and his closest followers in the mead hall about ho w he will destroy this beast or die trying. I meant to perform to the uttermost what your people wanted or perish in the attempt, in the fiends clutches. And I shall fulfill that purpose, prove myself with a proud deed or meet my death here in the mead-hall (634-8). We will write a custom essay on The Fate of a Hero in Beowulf specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now His speech to Hrothgar shows Beowulfs courage and confidence in his abilities. He also chooses not use any weapons or armor of any kind. I hereby renounce/ sword and the shelter of the broad shield,/ the heavy war-board: hand-to-hand/ is how it will be (436-8). His unsurpassed power is validated after the gruesome description of how Grendel destroys one of Beowulfs followers. Grendel struck suddenly and started in; he grabbed and mauled a man on his bench, bit into his bone-lappings, bolted down his blood and gorged on him in lumps, leaving the body utterly lifeless eaten up hand and foot (739-44). This destruction scene further emphasizes that the strength and power of Grendel seem to be no match for humankind. Yet as the monster turns to lash at Beowulf, Beowulf simply grabs onto his arm inflicting the most gut-wrenching pain the monster has ever experienced. He eventually rips off the arm off of this once unstoppable beast and Grendel returns to his liar to die. Beowulf defeats Gr endel in what seems to be a fairly simple fight with his bare human strength. The death of Grendel brings Beowulf another battle. Grendels mother is angered by the death of her only child and tries to avenge his death. Before Beowulf goes into the water to seek out Grendels mother, he speaks in much more detail about plans to be carried out in case of his death. Although he is indifferent to death (1443) the possibility of it hangs over him. Beowulf approaches this battle with similar levels of confidence but this time he covers himself in armor and uses a mighty sword. the mesh of chain-mail on Beowulfs shoulder shielded his life,(1547-8). Beowulfs original sword proves to be useless against this beast, and if not for the ancient sword Beowulf found in her liar, he may not come out victorious. These materials are a vital component of Beowulfs success which compares with the defeat of Grendel, where he only needed his bare hands to finish off the monster. It was a hard-fought, a desperate affair/ that could have gone badly; if God had not helped me,/ the outco me would have been quick and fatal (1666-8). He attributes finding that great sword as being a gift from God. Fate presents him with a way to defeat the monster when all seemed hopeless. This fight is a much harder struggle for Beowulf showing the gradual loss of his strength and vigor. Although Beowulf possesses the mighty ability to slay these two untamable beasts, he demonstrates his balance between strength and wisdom in his dealings with Unferth. In order to be a true hero he must have this unsurpassed strength and power but also know when to use it. When they first meet Unferth doubts his capabilities. ..this time you will be worsted; no one has ever/ outlasted an entire night against Grendel (527-8). Rather than getting angry or discouraged by Unferths insults, Beowulf replies by politely putting him in his place and pointing out that if Unferth were as brave as he was then Unferth himself would have slain Grendel and put an end to all this violence earlier. After Beowulf has defeated Grendel, Unferth begins to respect his power and strength. In recognition, he offers Beowulf a sword to use in battle against Grendels mother. The sword proves to be useless against the beast. Yet Beowulf never rags on him for giving such an inadequate sword for a gift. Instead, he told Unferth he had found it to be a friend in battle/ and a powerful help; he put no blame/ on the blades cutting edge. He was a considerate man (1810-12). These events show the wisdom Beowulf possesses. Despite Unferths immaturity, he realizes it would do him no good to humiliate Unferth and make an enemy with the Danes. He shows he has the knowledge to pick and choose his battles. .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd , .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd .postImageUrl , .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd , .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd:hover , .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd:visited , .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd:active { border:0!important; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd:active , .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u0a3524fe2ff403dcc347b8c66862fecd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: How can students be moviated to stay in hs EssayBeowulf gains respect of the Danes and returns to his native land. After years of protecting and serving the Geat nation, he received news of the fierce dragon that was wreaking havoc all over his land. His reaction to this news was quite varied compared to the reaction upon news of the monsters of Denmark. His mind was in turmoil, unaccustomed anxiety and gloom confused his brain; the fire-dragon had razed the coastal region and reduced forts and earthworks to dust and ashes, so the war-king planned and plotted his revenge (2331-6). His worry and fear are not expressed in the previous battles and never before is the planning or plotting process stressed as it is in this case. Then he gathers his men but before he embarks on his mission to kill the dragon he speaks to the Geats. He tells the sad story of the death of Herebeald by his own brother Haethcyn and the sorrow it caused the Geat people. He also expresses the endless cycle of violence that has been occurring as the Sweds and Geats take turn avenging one anothers deaths. These tragic stories are hardly a way to motivate his people before he goes in to battle. This hints that Beowulf is aware of his age and diminished strength and seems unsure of his fate. He was sad at heart,/ unsettled yet ready, sensing his death./ His fate hovered near, unknowable but certain;/ it would soon claim his coffered soul, part life from limb (2419-22). Rather than departing for battle with a sense of hope and excitement he leaves with a feeling of sorrow foreshadowing the eve nts to come. He also ensures he is well protected by his mail-shirt and shield (2524) knowing he is unable to fight the mighty dragon without the aid of his weaponry. He gives it his all but comes out unsuccessful. If not for the help of one of his comrades, Wiglaf, Beowulf would have easily been defeated. Wiglaf sunk his sword into the dragons belly which weakened his fire breathing flames. Only then was Beowulf able to use his stabbing knife to give the dragon a deadly wound. Similar to the fight with Grendels mother, Beowulf is unable to defeat the monster without the help of outside influences. After leaving Wiglaf with some details about his funeral plans and seeing the treasure he thought he won for his people Beowulf dies. His death signifies the great role of fate among all aspects of life. Wiglaf learns as he watches Beowulfs life flee form his body that nothing and no one, no matter how great, can last forever, there was no way/ he could preserve his lords life on earth/ o r alter in the least the Almightys will (2855-7). During some of Beowulfs last words he realizes all the good he has brought to his nation and seems to accept his fate. For fifty years I ruled this nation. No king of any neighboring clan would dare face me with troops, no one had the power to intimidate me. I took what came, cared for and stood by things in my keeping, never fomented quarrels, never swore to a lie. All this consoles me(2732-9). Although Beowulf may accept his destiny the fate of the Geat nation he leaves behind is unknown. It seems that without the power and strength with which Beowulf had protected their nation they may be doomed. The feuds with the Sweds will be revived they will cross our borders and attack in force when they find out Beowulf is dead (3001-3). There is a hint that the fall of Beowulf may in turn become the fall of the entire Geat nation, which only further emphasizes the impact he made while serving the Geats. .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e , .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e .postImageUrl , .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e , .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e:hover , .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e:visited , .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e:active { border:0!important; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e:active , .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua90ccd3fc6504fd0001caa259f18899e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Analysis of Because I Could Not Stop for Death EssayWiglaf seems to emphasize this idea in his words. Often when one man follows his own will/ many are hurt (3077-8). For the first time in the story the idea is presented that Beowulf may have failed his people. His choice to conquer this dragon seems to be the obvious choice for a warrior. He must protect his people. But Beowulf seems so caught up in the surreal threats such as, monsters and dragons, he fails to realize the real peril he has left his people in. Beowulf is aware of his age and uneasy feeling toward his success yet he chooses to take on the dragon anyways. Although the dragon is defeated the Geat people are presented with even greater danger of the Sweds who will surely pounce on their nation. Therefore, throughout the story Beowulf is presented as the ultimate hero; demonstrating the strength of thirty men in his grasp while also using his powerful insight to avoid unnecessary conflict. His surreal strength and wisdom allow Beowulf to accomplish great feats within his time. He not only saves the land of the Danes form the terrorizing monsters but serves and protects his own people as well. Despite his heroic qualities, his humanity is proven by showing his eventual downfall; expressing that even the greatest heroes cannot live forever. Beowulfs heroic qualities can only hold him above the rest until fate takes its toll and he too becomes defeated.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Definition of Appendix in a Book or Written Work

Definition of Appendix in a Book or Written Work An appendix is a collection of supplementary materials, usually appearing at the end of a report, academic paper,  proposal  (such as a bid or a grant), or book. The word appendix comes from the Latin appendere, meaning hang upon. An appendix typically includes data and supporting documents used by a writer to develop the written work. Though such information should be of potential use to the reader (not  treated as an opportunity for padding), it would disrupt the flow of the argument if  it were included in the main body of the text. Examples of Supporting Materials Not every report, proposal, or  book needs an  appendix. However, including one allows you to point to  additional information that is relevant  but would be out of place in the main body of the text. It can  give the reader more depth to the topic, supply resources for further reading or contact lists, or provide documentation to make your case for your grant or bid proposal. Appendix information may include tables, figures, charts, letters, memos,  detailed technical specs, maps, drawings, diagrams, photos, or other materials. In the case of research papers, supporting materials may include surveys, questionnaires, or schematics and the like that were  used to produce the results included in the paper. Because of its supplementary nature, it is important that material in an appendix not be left to speak for itself, according to Eamon Fulcher in A Guide to Coursework in Psychology. This means that you must not put vital information only in an appendix without any indication in the main text that it is there, Fulcher says. An appendix is an ideal place to include information and other data that are simply too long or detailed to incorporate into the main body text. If these materials were used in the works development, readers may want to reference them to double-check or locate additional information. Including the materials in an appendix is often the most organized way to make them available. Should You Include an Appendix? Whether you include an appendix depends on your topic and what will benefit the reader. If you answer yes to one or more of these questions, create an appendix. Will supplemental materials aid the readers understanding of your topic? Will they provide resources for further reading or exploration? Will they supply additional depth to the data presented in your report, article, book, or proposal? Will the materials provide additional backup for your thesis or message? Do you have items  that would be unwieldy to present in a footnote? The appendix material should be streamlined, relevant to your topic or thesis, and useful to the reader- but its not a place to put all of your research materials. The citations in the references, bibliography, works cited, or endnotes will take care of citing your sources. An appendix is a place for items that help the readers understanding of your work and research and the topic at hand.  If the material is not important enough to refer to in your text, then dont include it in an appendix. Appendix vs. Addendum An addendum is new  material added to a book or other written work after its first edition has been produced. It may be updated research or additional sources that came to light or further explanation about the book from the author, for example. In a contract, an addendum can change the terms of the contract, such as canceling sections or updating terms or pricing in sections without the whole contract becoming null and void and needing everyone to sign it anew. The parties to the contract just need to sign the addendum with the noted changes. Formatting an Appendix The way in which you format your appendix depends on the style guide you have chosen to follow for your work. In general, each item referred to in your text (table, figure, chart, or other information) should be included as its own appendix- though if there are many data sets under one grouping, keep them together in their appendix and label each piece appropriately. If you have more than one appendix, label the appendices Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. so that you can easily cite them in the body of the  report, and start each on a separate page. Put them in the order that you refer to them in the paper, for ease of use for the reader, and dont forget to note them in the table of contents, if your work has one. Research papers, including academic and medical studies, usually follow APA style guidelines for the formatting of appendices. They can also follow the Chicago Manual of Style. For each of these styles, format the appendix as follows: APA: Center the title, and use upper and lowercase letters. The text of the appendix should be flush left, and you should indent your paragraphs. Chicago: The Chicago style manual also allows for numbered appendices (1, 2, 3, not just A, B, C). As far as location, they appear before any endnotes sections so that any information in the appendices that needs a note can refer to the notes section. If there are many tables in the appendices, though, it might be best to keep the notes with the tables.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Why was the Hong Kong government so slow to abolish the mui tsai Research Paper

Why was the Hong Kong government so slow to abolish the mui tsai system - Research Paper Example They were sold, under the pretext that they would eventually be freed when they were older through their eventual future marriage. Such arrangements, were generally conceived as being charitable, as such young girls/ women would be better taken care of, as mui tsai, rather than if they remained in their poor family settings. The above is rooted in the traditional Chinese ideal (preference) of a male heir, as opposed to female offspring, hence the accepted alternative option of selling these unwanted girls. Such transactions often lacked binding contracts, hence such arrangements were prone to various manipulations, the most common being sale of such young women into prostitution1. While the rest of the global society was enacting the – Abolishment of slave trade – this through the Slave Trade Act and the Slavery Abolition Act, the Hong Kong government was reluctant to follow suit pegged on the fact that it treated the transfer of girls/ young women as a family affair or matter, which was rooted in traditional custom. Additionally was Hong Kong’s existent government reluctance to offend its local elites, who virtually benefited from this system, and hence were unwilling to fully implement total abolition of the same. Hong Kong, was among the many entities that served as British protectorates or colonies, and hence British law, passed through parliament, necessitated the eventual enactment of the – Female Domestic Service Bill in the year 1923. Churchill was the then Secretary of State for the British colonies and his pledge was because of parliamentary inquiries that later necessitated the timely action of the British Colonial Office2. Various charges, such as slavery, child torture, and the buying and selling of children, by several MPs (Members of Parliament), thus necessitated the aforementioned pledge by Churchill. Such uproar was because of the British society’s unfamiliarity with the aforementioned phenomenon, with the Br itish domestic sensibilities having outlawed slavery since the year 1933, in addition to having undergone various child labor reforms. At first, the Colonial Office officials put up a spirited defense of the practice, which they defended as being nothing illegal, with this Chinese traditional custom. Such officially muted apprehension, contrasted sharply with other existent opinions as exemplified by Clara Haslewood, a lead activist, whose book, Child Slavery in Hong Kong: The Mui Tsai System – explicitly characterized the phenomenon3. Further complicating the matter was Hong Kong government’s resistance towards all attempts at abolishing this trend-giving rise to two distinct groupings amongst the existent native populations. These two distinct parties were either for (supported) or against the practice, the controversy reaching its peak as a fully-fledged scandal both in Britain and in the then Hong Kong British colony. With the 1923 Female Domestic Service Bill in p lace – further sale, purchase, transfer and importation of mui tsais, was prohibited, with an additional demand for the requisite registration of all existent mui tsais, however being postponed. Unfortunately, this vital law was never observed with the seriousness that it necessitated4. However, with Britain becoming a signatory to the International Slavery Convention (1926) under the leadership of the League of Nations, this issue faced international scrutiny. It is hence from such strong international political pressure that Hong Kong’s government enacted the 1929 Female Domestic Service Ordinance. This required the registration of all existent mui tsais, prior to 31 May 1930. Henceforth, neither the sale nor registration was